The National Security Enterprise

cover art
384 pp., 7 x 10
ISBN: 9781589016989 (158901698X)

ISBN: 9781589017504

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January 2011
LC: 2010022402


Table of Contents
Press Release

The National Security Enterprise
Navigating the Labyrinth
Roger Z. George and Harvey Rishikof, Editors
Foreword by Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.)

Recent breakdowns in American national security have exposed the weaknesses of the nation's vast overlapping security and foreign policy bureaucracy and the often dysfunctional interagency process. In the literature of national security studies, however, surprisingly little attention is given to the specific dynamics or underlying organizational cultures that often drive the bureaucratic politics of U.S. security policy.

The National Security Enterprise offers a broad overview and analysis of the many government agencies involved in national security issues, the interagency process, Congressional checks and balances, and the influence of private sector organizations. The chapters cover the National Security Council, the Departments of Defense and State, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Office of Management and Budget. The book also focuses on the roles of Congress, the Supreme Court, and outside players in the national security process like the media, think tanks, and lobbyists. Each chapter details the organizational culture and personality of these institutions so that readers can better understand the mindsets that drive these organizations and their roles in the policy process.

Many of the contributors to this volume are long-time practitioners who have spent most of their careers working for these organizations. As such, they offer unique insights into how diplomats, military officers, civilian analysts, spies, and law enforcement officials are distinct breeds of policymakers and political actors. To illustrate how different agencies can behave in the face of a common challenge, contributors reflect in detail on their respective agency's behavior during the Iraq War.

This impressive volume is suitable for academic studies at both the undergraduate and graduate level; ideal for U.S. government, military, and national security training programs; and useful for practitioners and specialists in national security studies.

Roger Z. George is Professor of National Security Practice at Occidental College. During his thirty-year career as a CIA analyst, he also served at the State and Defense Departments and was the national intelligence officer for Europe.

Harvey Rishikof was formerly the dean of faculty and professor of law and national security at the National War College. He has held senior positions in the federal justiciary, the office of the director of national intelligence, and the FBI. He has been the chairman of the ABA's standing committee on law and national security, and he is currently involved in a cyber law practice with Cromwell & Moring in Washingon, DC.

"A first-rate addition to the literature and an equally important classroom tool. The National Security Enterprise provides the best one-volume compilation I've seen for understanding intelligence, its internal processes, and the environment in which it operates."—International Journal of Intelligence & Counter Intelligence

"The National Security Enterprise widens the perspective for those interested in how the IC functions, or should function. . . . Essential reading for students and potential managers. A really valuable addition to the intelligence literature."—AFIO Intelligencer, Winter/Spring 2012

"A thought - provoking series of essays that approach the national security enterpise (NSE) as a set of complex interactions between entities both within and beyond government."—International Journal of Intelligence Ethics

"Roger George and Harvey Rishikof have assembled a superb team of practitioners and academics, and the result is the most comprehensive analysis yet available of the system by which the United States makes its national security decisions. Especially insightful are the dysfunctions in the current system and the potential remedies to them. This book is essential reading for those concerned with US national security decisionmaking."—Robert Art, Christian A. Herter Professor of International Relations, Brandeis University

"This valuable contribution of insightful essays offers a distinctive contribution by analyzing the role of law in the functioning of the national security enterprise."—William E. Nelson, Edward Weinfeld Professor of Law and professor of history, New York University

"The National Security Enterprise approaches the national security policymaking process from every imaginable angle—the intelligence community, the Congress, the State Department, the military, think tanks, lobbies, and much more. This volume's comprehensiveness is remarkable, surpassed only by the erudition of its authors, who are perfectly suited to lead the reader through the many twists and turns of how America formulates its foreign policy."—Lee H. Hamilton, president and director, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

"Rooted in decades of professional practice, The National Security Enterprise provides an insightful survey of the organizational cultures in our national security architecture that will serve as an invaluable resource for anyone seeking to understand key players as they construct US national security policy."—Graham Allison, director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University and author of Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe

Table of Contents
Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.)


Introduction: The National Security Enterprise: Institutions, Cultures and Politics
Roger Z. George and Harvey Rishikof

Part I: The Interagency Process

1. History of the Interagency Process for Foreign Relations in the United States: Murphy's Law?
Jon J. Rosenwasser and Michael Warner

2. The Evolution of the NSC Process
David Auerswald

3. The Office of Management and Budget: The President's Policy Tool
Gordon Adams

4. The State Department: Culture as Interagency Destiny?
Marc Grossman

5. The Office of the Secretary of Defense: Civilian Masters?
Frederick C. Smith and Franklin C. Miller

6. The Military: Forging a Joint Warrior Culture
Michael J. Meese and Isaiah Wilson III

7. Office of the Director of National Intelligence: Promising Start Despite Ambiguity, Ambivalence, and Animosity
Thomas Fingar

8. Central Intelligence Agency: The President's Own
Roger Z. George

9. The Evolving FBI: Becoming a New National Security Enterprise Asset
Harvey Rishikof

10. The Department of Homeland Security: Chief of Coordination
Gary M. Shiffman and Jonathan Hoffman

Part II: The President's Partners and Rivals

11. Congress: Checking Presidential Power
Gerald Felix Warburg

12. The United States Supreme Court: The Cult of the Robe in the National Security Enterprise
Harvey Rishikof

Part III: The Outside Players

13. Lobbyists: U.S. National Security and Special Interests
Gerald Felix Warburg

14. Think Tanks: Supporting Cast Players in the National Security Enterprise
Ellen Laipson

15. The Media: Witness to the National Security Enterprise
John Diamond

Conclusion: Navigating the Labyrinth of the National Security Enterprise
Harvey Rishikof and Roger Z. George