Replacement Parts

The Ethics of Procuring and Replacing Organs in Humans

Arthur L. Caplan, James J. McCartney, and Daniel P. Reid, Editors

"This is a high quality work with detailed arguments pertaining to increased organ donation. . . . Due to its comprehensive nature and argument compilation, this is a significant addition to the field."
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In Replacement Parts, internationally recognized bioethicist Arthur L. Caplan and coeditors James J. McCartney and Daniel P. Reid assemble seminal writings from medicine, philosophy, economics, and religion that address the ethical challenges raised by organ transplantation. Caplan's new lead essay explains the shortfalls of present policies. From there, book sections take an interdisciplinary approach to fundamental issues like the determination of death and the dead donor rule; the divisive case of using anencephalic infants as organ donors; the sale of cadaveric or live organs; possible strategies for increasing the number of available organs, including market solutions and the idea of presumed consent; and questions surrounding transplant tourism and "gaming the system" by using the media to gain access to organs.

Timely and balanced, Replacement Parts is a first-of-its-kind collection aimed at surgeons, physicians, nurses, and other professionals involved in this essential lifesaving activity that is often fraught with ethical controversy.

Table of Contents

Arthur L. Caplan

Part One: The Dead Donor Rule, the Determination of Death, and Organ Transplantation from (Almost?) Cadavers
James J. McCartney

1. The Dead Donor Rule and the Concept of Death: Severing the Ties That Bind Them
Elysa R. Koppelman

2. The Theoretical and Practical Importance of the Dead Donor Rule
James J. McCartney

3. The Dead-Donor Rule and the Future of Organ Donation
Robert D. Truog, Frank G. Miller, Scott D. Halpern

4. The Dead Donor Rule: Effect on the Virtuous Practice of Medicine
Frank C. Chaten

5. BRAIN DEATH without Definitions
Winston Chiong

6. Accepting Brain Death
David C. Magnus, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Arthur L. Caplan

7. Address to the International Congress on Transplants
Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II)

8. Brain Death: Can It Be Resuscitated?
D. Alan Shewmon

9. The Boundaries of Organ Donation after Circulatory Death
James L. Bernat

10. Should We Allow Organ Donation Euthanasia? Alternatives for Maximizing the Number and Quality of Organs for Transplantation
Dominic Wilkinson and Julian Savulescu

11. The Ethics of Non-Heart-Beating Donation: How New Technology Can Change the Ethical Landscape
Kristin Zeiler, Elisabeth Furberg, Gunnar Tufveson, Staffen Welin

Part Two: The Use of Anencephalic Infants as Organ Donors
James J. McCartney

12. Anencephalic Donors: Separate the Dead from the Dying
Alexander Morgan Capron

13. Anencephalics as Organ Donors
Richard M. Zaner

14. Ethical Issues in the Use of Anencephalic Infants as a Source of Organs and Tissues for Transplantation
Arthur L. Caplan

15. Use of Anencephalic Newborns as Organ Donors: Position Statement
Canadian Paediatric Society

Part Three: Sale of Cadaveric or Live Organs
Daniel P. Reid

16. Iranian Model of Paid and Regulated Living-Unrelated Kidney Donation
Ahad J. Ghods, and Shekoufeh Savaj

17. Regulated Payments for Living Kidney Donation: An Empirical Assessment of the Ethical Concerns
Scott D. Halpern, Amelia Raz, Rachel Kohn, Michael Rey, David A. Asch, and Peter Reese

18. The Hidden Cost of Organ Sale
Sheila M. Rothman and David J. Rothman

19. Commercial Organ Transplantation in the Philippines
Leigh Turner

20. Kidney Vending: The “Trojan Horse” of Organ Transplantation
Gabriel M. Danovitch, and Alan B. Leichtman

21. Financial Incentives for Cadaveric Organ Donation
David Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber and Robert Fitzgerald

Part Four: Other Strategies for Increasing the Number of Available Organs
Danieil P. Reid

22. Nudge, Nudge or Shove, Shove—The Right Way for Nudges to Increase the Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs
Kyle Powys Whyte , Evan Selinger , Arthur L. Caplan, Jathan Sadowski

23. The Case for “Presumed Consent” in Organ Donation
Ian Kennedy, Robert A. Sells, Abdallah S. Daar, Ronald D. Guttmann, Raymond Hoffenberg, Michael Lock, Janet Radcliffe-Richards, and Nicholas Tilney

24. A Critical Approach to the Current Understanding of Islamic Scholars on Using Cadaver Organs Without Prior Permission
Sahin Aksoy

25. Priority in Organ Allocation to Previously Registered Donors: Public Perceptions of the Fairness and Effectiveness of Priority Systems
Jennifer A. Chandler, Jacquelyn A. Burkell, and Sam D. Shemie

26. The Use of Prisoners as Sources of Organs—An Ethically Dubious Practice
Arthur L. Caplan

27. Presumed Consent to Organ Donation in Three European Countries
Barbara L Neades

28. Kidney Paired Donation 2011
David Serur and Marion Charlton

29. Kidney Paired Donation
C. Bradley Wallis, Kannan P. Samy, Alvin E. Roth, and Michael A. Rees

30. Some High Risk Kidneys Safe for Transplant
Kristina Fiore

Part Five: Gaming the System
Arthur L. Caplan

31. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism
Participants in the International Summit on Transplant Tourism and Organ Trafficking Convened by the Transplantation Society and International Society of Nephrology in Istanbul, Turkey, April 30-May 2, 2008

32. The Hazards of Transplant Tourism
Francis L. Delmonico

33. Transplant Tourism in China: A Tale of Two Transplants
Rosamond Rhodes & Thomas Schiano

34. Multiple Listing in Kidney Transplantation
Mohammad Sanaei Ardekani and Janis M. Orlowski

5. Can Any System of Rationing Withstand the Plea of a Ten-Year-Old Girl?
Arthur L. Caplan and Jennifer deSante

Permissions and Credits


"The variety of contributors keeps the subject material fresh. . . . The book is written in a way that is useful to both readers and those seeking a starting point for further research into the ethics related to organ donation and transplantation. . . . An excellent collaborative effort."—National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly

"This is a high quality work with detailed arguments pertaining to increased organ donation. . . . Due to its comprehensive nature and argument compilation, this is a significant addition to the field."—Doody's Book Review

"The ethics of organ transplantation has been a core topic ever since the emergence of modern bioethics in the late 1960s. This expertly edited anthology provides a comprehensive examination of the complexities of the issue. It will be a key text for beginners as well as advanced students of the field."—Jonathan Moreno, David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, University of Pennsylvania

"Replacement Parts will serve as the volume of record on the ethics of organ transplantation for years to come. The editors have carefully woven together the best contributions in a way that makes the book highly valuable and accessible to students, instructors, researchers, and policymakers."—Dominic Sisti, Assistant Professor of Medical Ethics, University of Pennsylvania


Sahin Aksoy, Mohammad Sanaei Ardekani, David A. Asch, James L. Bernat, Jacquelyn A. Burkell, Arthur L. Caplan, Alexander Morgan Capron, Jennifer A. Chandler, Michael R. Charlton, Frank C. Chaten, Winston Chiong, Abdallah Daar, Gabriel M. Danovitch, Francis L. Delmonico, Jennifer deSante, Kristina Fiore, Robert D. Fitzgerald, Elisabeth Furberg, Ahad J. Ghods, Ronald D. Guttmann, Scott D. Halpern, Raymond Hoffenberg, Ian Kennedy, Rachel Kohn, Elysa R. Koppelman-White, Alan B. Leichtman, Michael Lock, David C. Magnus, David Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, James J. McCartney, Franklin G. Miller, Barbara L. Neades, Janis M. Orlowski, Janet Radcliffe-Richards, Amelie Raz, Michael A. Rees, Peter Reese, Daniel P. Reid, Michael Rey, Rosamond Rhodes, Alvin Elliot Roth, David J. Rothman, Shelia M. Rothman, Jathan Sadowski, Kannan P. Samy, Shokoufeh Savaj, Julian Savulescu, Thomas D. Schiano, Evan Selinger, Robert A. Sells, David Serur, Sam D. Shemie, D. Alan Shewmon, Nicholas Tilney, Robert D. Truog, Gunnar Tufveson, Leigh Turner, Charles Bradley Wallis, Staffen Welin, Kyle Powys Whyte, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Dominic Wilkinson, Karol Wojtyła (Pope Saint John Paul II), Richard M. Zaner, and Kristin Zeiler.

Supplemental Materials


Selected as a 2017 Doody's Core Title

About the Author

Arthur L. Caplan is head of the Division of Bioethics at New York University Langone Medical Center and the author or editor of over thirty books and six hundred articles.

James J. McCartney is an associate professor in the Philosophy Department at Villanova University and an adjunct professor in its School of Law. In the past he has been the ethics consultant for several major health systems in the United States.

Daniel P. Reid is a recent graduate of Villanova University.

320 pp., 7 x 10
4 figures, 2 tables
ISBN: 978-1-62616-235-8
Nov 2015

320 pp., 7 x 10
4 figures, 2 tables
ISBN: 978-1-62616-236-5
Nov 2015

320 pp.
4 figures, 2 tables
ISBN: 978-1-62616-237-2
Nov 2015

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